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borrowed words
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Borrowed Words Sophomore Introduction to Linguistics (B) Camille Chiang & Sally Wu 490200 & 490200505 Professor Agnes Yuan Linguistics Report :Borrowed Words May 13, 2003 2 Ι. Introduction: Borrowing is a method for a language to add new words from other languages into its system. That is, it ―takes over words from other languages.‖(George Yule, The study of language, page 65) In English, borrowing belongs to one of the processes of Derivational Morphology. Throughout the history of English, English has adopted a lot of borrowed words from many languages, including France, German, Dutch Arabic, Italian and etc. To study borrowed words further, we can divide this term ―borrowing‖ into two different types: Loan Translation and Transliteration. We can also call Loan Translation ―calque‖. It means ―there is a direct translation of the elements of a word into the borrowing language.‖ We can see the example of the word ―skyscraper‖ borrowed from French into English in Yule (page 65). The other term is Transliteration, which we can define as writing and translating words or letters using letters of a different alphabet or language. That is, translate the borrowed words from other languages according to the sounds we hear and then translate them in our language system. In this paper, our group focuses on the English borrowed words that we take into the Chinese language system. We not only collect the borrowed words through observation in daily life and questionnaire, but also study them morphologically and phonetically. Beside the two terms of borrowing, we find that some borrowed words are not completely labeled into the two terms. Then, we label them in other part of borrowed words and give new definition. Π.Design: We collect our data mostly through the c conversation we had with other people who we met or talked to, and some borrowed words were recorded through the conversation we heard from others. In addition to these two methods of collecting data, we also had several brainstorming to seek for some borrowed words we already knew. At last, we had a small questionnaire survey as follows given to our classmates so that we could have more ideas about this topic. 親愛的同學您好,這是英文系語言學概論其中一組報告組所作的一份問券,針對您對中文裡出現的英文Borrowed Words(外來語)做個資料蒐集與了解。依據您在生活中對Borrowed Word的了解,請您列出至少五個從英文傳到中文裡的 Borrowed Words,任何您認為是的字彙皆可。 3 您的系級: ________ 您的科系: ________ Thank you  Ⅲ.Findings / Results : A:Loan Translation (Food) 1. hotdog 熱狗 2. supermarket 超級市場 3. organic food 有機食品 4. milk tea 奶茶 5. afternoon tea 下午茶 (Living) 6. air-conditioner 空氣調節器;冷氣機 7. high-heel shoes 高跟鞋 8. motel (Acronym) 汽車旅館 9. wallpaper 壁紙 (Transportation) 10. traffic sign 交通號誌 11. crossroad 十字路口 (Education) 12. homework 回家作業 13. midterm 期中考 14. blackboard 黑板 (Entertainment) 15. variety show 綜藝節目 (Cosmetics) 16. Lipstick 口紅 17. eye shadow 眼影 (Sports) 18. basketball 籃球 19. football 美式足球 (Movies & Brands) 20. John walker 約翰走路 21. Batman 扁蝠俠 4 22. Superman 超人 23. Spiderman 蜘蛛人 24. Snow white 白雪公主 (Computer & Net) 25. keyboard 鍵盤 26. modem 魔電 27. upload 上傳 28. download 下載 29. BBS→(Bulletin Board System) 電子佈告欄 30. Internet→(International Net) 網際網路 31. CPU→(Central Processing Unit) 中央處理器 32. WWW→(World Wide Web) 世界寬網 33. SEED Net→(Seed Network) 種子網路 34. URL→(User Resources Location) 使用者資料出處來源 35. Microsoft 微軟 (Others) 36. snowball 雪球 37. –ism (Nationalism, feminism, nazism) 主義 38. Hair dying 染髮 39. Mass Media 大眾媒體 40. A.I.→(Artificial Intelligence)人工智慧 41. E.Q.→(Emotion Quotient) 情緒商數 42. I.Q.→(Intelligence Quotient) 智慧商數 43. boy/girl scout 男/女童軍 44. Nestea/ Nestle coffee 鵲巢紅茶;鵲巢咖啡 45. cocktail 雞尾酒 46. pencil box 鉛筆盒 47. ponytail 馬尾 48 notebook 筆記本 49.honeymoon 蜜月 50.microscope 顯微鏡 51.telescope 望遠鏡 52.Iceland 冰島 53.flagship 旗艦 B:Transliteration (Food) 1. pudding 布丁 2. bacon 培根、貝肯 5 3. chocolate 巧克力 4. sandwich 三明治 5. pie 派 6. pizza 披薩 7. mango 芒果 8. sardine 沙丁魚 9. sundae 聖代 10. cheese 起司 11. salad 沙拉 12. hamburger 漢堡 13. yogurt 優格 14. toast 土司 15. Mantos 曼陀珠 16. bagel 焙果 17. whisky 威士忌 18. saron 沙朗(牛排) 19. kiwi 奇異果 20. lemon 檸檬 21. lime 萊姆 (Drinks) 23. coffee 咖啡 24.cola 可樂 25. cocoa 可可亞 26. sars 沙士 27. soda 蘇打 28.latte 拿鐵 29.mocha 摩卡 (Clothing) 30.jacket 夾克 31.T-shirt T 恤 32. bikini 比基尼 (Vehicle) 33.bus 巴士 34.motor 摩托車 35.engine 引擎 36.jeep →(G.P. or General purpose vehicle)吉普車 37.tank 坦克 (Sport) 6 38.marathon 馬拉松 39.bowling 保齡球 40.golf 高爾夫 41.ballet 芭蕾 42.waltz 華爾玆 43.cha-cha 恰恰 44.samba 森巴舞 (Entertainment) 45..talk show 脫口秀 46.cartoon 卡通 47.call-in 扣應 48.microphone麥克風 49.poker 撲克牌 50.party 派對 (Brand Names) 51.MacDonald ’s 麥當勞 52.yahoo 雅虎 53.Kimo 奇摩 54.Benz 賓士 55.Porsche 保時捷 56.Chanel 香奈兒 (Countries) 57.Scotland 蘇格蘭 58.Wales 威爾斯 59.America 美利堅共和國 60.Turkey 土耳其 61.Netherlands 荷蘭 62.Hawaii 夏威夷 63.Latin 拉丁 (other) 64.humor 幽默 65.boycott 杯葛 66.hysteria 歇斯底里 67.logic 邏輯 68.caffeine 咖啡因 69.aspirin 阿斯匹林 70.tannin 單寧酸 71.UFO (Acronym) 幽浮 7 72.mini 迷你 73.Vaseline 凡士林 74.romance 羅曼史 75.romantic 羅曼蒂克 76.model 模特兒 77.laser → (light amplification through the stimulated emission of radiation)雷射 78.radar →(radio detecting and ranging) 雷達 79.sonar 聲納 80.gene 基因 81.shock 休克 82.dozen 打 83.neon 霓虹 84.modern 摩登 85.cool 酷 86.chalk 巧克 87.sofa 沙發 88.bye‑bye 掰掰 89.salon 沙龍 90.Typhoon 颱風 91.Cozilla 庫斯拉 92. guitar 吉他 93.myth 迷思 94.garlon 加崙 95.pint 品脫 96.Clogne 古龍水 97.Queer 酷兒 98.Hollywood 好萊塢 99.Polylon 寶麗龍 100. teflon 鐵氟隆 101. e-mail 伊媚兒 C:Other Kinds (incomplete loan translation) :Here we refers to some borrowed words that are a little bit different after they are translated into Chinese. 1.mouse 滑鼠 2.baseball 棒球 3.volleyball 排球 4.homerun 全壘打 5.milk shake 奶昔 8 Ⅳ.Discussion of the findings/results : A: When borrowed words from English are absorbed into Chinese, the words could be translated in two ways : (1)Loan translation (claque ):word to word translation →Borrowed words of this type can be analyzed into smaller units (morphemes ). That is to say, we can translate the bigger words of this type according to the smaller units(morphemes ). ex:supermarket (超級市場), basketball (籃球), hotdog(熱夠), etc. (2)Transliteration :Borrowed words of this type are translated by only imitating the original sound or pronunciation of the word. That is to say, we can ’t tell what the word means by only looking at the word literally. ex :cola(可樂), e-mail(伊媚兒), bye-bye(掰掰), etc.-- Can we know what these words mean when we only look into their Chinese translations? Because ― 可樂‖= a kind of drink? ― 伊媚兒‖=electronic mail?Then why the translation has ― 媚‖ ― 掰掰‖=saying goodbye, instead of saying something nonsense since ― 掰‖ means saying something nonsense in Chinese ? *Possible Interpretation :When words are borrowed from English into Chinese, those words which can be analyzed and translated by smaller units (morphemes)are translated according to the meanings of those smaller morphemes. That is to say, those borrowed words are later classified as ―Loan translation‖ through the derivational proce ss of forming new borrowed words in Chinese. Then, the rest of those words which are inseparable or untranslatable by the smaller units (morphemes)are translated in the way of imitating their original pronunciation. 【Related to ―Morphology‖ 】 B:When the words are borrowed from English into Chinese, they become new words in Chinese. This process of increasing of new words in Chinese is not only involved in ―borrowing‖ but also some other derivational processes, such as ―acronym‖, ―compounding‖, ―extension‖ of word formulation rules, etc. We found that ―acronym‖ seemed to play a very important role in borrowed words, conversion (functional shift ), and we found a lot of borrowed words are actually ―loan translations‖ of those ―acronyms‖ no matter whether those wo rds are translated either by ―loan translation‖ or ―transliteration‖. We can see the examples as follows : (1)Acronym:Words that are formed when the initials used to abbreviate a longer term be pronounceable words in themselves. ex :BBS(Bulletin Board System )→電子佈告欄系統, Internet(International Network )→網際網路, CPU(Central Processing Unit)→中央處理器, WWW(World Wide Web)→世界寬網, Seed net()→種子網路, URL(User Resources Location )→使用者資料出處來源 , A.I(Artificial Intelligence)→(人工智慧), I.Q(Intelligence Quotient)→智慧商數, E.Q. (Emotion Quotient )→情緒商數, Jeep (General Purpose Vehicle)→吉普車, UFO 9 (Unidentified Flying Object )→幽浮, .laser → (light amplification through the stimulated emission of radiation)雷射, radar →(radio detecting and ranging) 雷達, etc. (2)Compounding:A joining of two separate words to produce a single form. ex :air-conditioner 空氣調節器, high-heel shoes 高跟鞋, call-in 扣應, etc. (3)Extension:A part of the morphemes that are ―affixes‖, inclusive of ―prefixes‖, infixes‖, and suffixes‖ will all be translated in certain ways. But for most of the cas es, extension happens to be ―suffixes‖. ex :-ism→主義 【Nazism, feminism, nationalism, capitalism, etc.】 (4)Conversion(Functional shift ):Words keep the same form, but have different grammatical function, such as ―Verb→noun‖. ex: Words like ―call-in‖, ―boycott‖, ―bye-bye‖ can be used as a verb and also a noun. (5)Blending:The combing of two separate words to produce a single new term...
Foreign Words-豆瓣读书
导演:Vassilis Alexakis
this narrative follows a son lost for words over the death of his father....in either his native Greek or his ...
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